Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Action and Energy Conservation by PT Angkasa Pura I

Photo by Roman Chyller on Unsplash The transportation sector is the main sector supporting inter-regional connectivity to serve goods and passenger transport movement. To carry out the operational functions of the transportation sector, it cannot be separated from the dependence on energy consumption in terms of transportation facilities and infrastructure.

The transportation sector is the largest user of energy consumption in Indonesia. Based on data from the Handbook of Energy & Economic Statistics published by the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, in 2019, energy consumption in the transportation sector amounted to 415 million BOE. Then followed by the industrial sector of 347 million BOE, the household sector of 130 million BOE, the commercial sector of 43 million BOE, and other sectors of 12 million BOE. In addition, based on the final energy consumption mix per sector in 2019, the transportation sector dominated by 44%, followed by the industrial sector 37%, the household sector 14%, the commercial sector 4%, and other sectors 1%.

The transportation sector is the largest user of energy consumption, both in terms of facilities and infrastructure. Mostly, fuel oil consumption in terms of facilities, such as private and public vehicles, sea transportation, air transportation, and rail transportation. Meanwhile, electricity consumption is dominant in infrastructure to support transportation infrastructures such as bus terminals, train stations, ports, and airports.

Airports as transportation nodes in supporting connectivity require electrical energy consumption to support the operation of basic facilities and supporting facilities.

Airport basic facilities that require electrical energy consumption, such as safety facilities to support the operation of visual landing aids (Airfield Lighting System) and airside facilities to support runway, taxiway, apron, and other facilities operations. Meanwhile, on the land side facilities, the need for electrical energy is to support the operation of the passenger terminal building for lighting and air conditioning, cargo buildings, administrative buildings, street lighting, and other facilities on the land side.

Airport supporting facilities, both those that directly and indirectly support airport operations, also require electricity consumption for operations. These supporting facilities include airport hotel accommodations, shops, restaurants, tenants, and other supporting facilities.

Increased consumption of electrical energy contributes to climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions originating from human activities, including transportation activities, and the production of electrical energy through power plants that use fossil fuels such as coal.

Ratifikasi Paris Aggrement

The government has made efforts to control Climate Change through the ratification of the Paris Agreement at COP (Conference of Parties) 21 in Paris in 2015, that the Government of Indonesia has committed to reducing GHG emissions by 29% with its efforts and 41% with international support in 2030 which is formulated in NDC (National Determined Contribution) document that has been submitted to the UNFCCC (United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change).

Based on the NDC document, the Energy sector, which includes the transportation and industrial sectors, has a target of reducing GHG emissions in 2030 by 11% or 314 MTCO2e, ranking second after the forestry sector, which has a target of 17.2% or 497 MTCO2e. Then in the next order, followed by the waste management sector with a target of 0.38% or 11 MTCO2e, the agricultural sector with a target of 0.32% or 9 MTCO2e, and the IPPU sector with a target of 0.10% or 2.75 MTCO2e.

The transportation sector, coordinated by the Ministry of Transportation, has issued regulations governing inventory and mitigation for climate change control in the transportation sector. The regulatory support is through the Decree of the Minister of Transportation No. KP. 201 of 2013 concerning establishing an Action Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions (RAN – GRK) for Transportation and GHG Inventory in the Transportation Sector. In the air transportation sub-sector, the Director-General of Civil Aviation Instruction Number INST 11 of 2017 has also issued instructions for reducing GHG emissions at airports.

RUEN Document – Transportation Infrastructure Program

In addition to the mandatory programs of the Paris Agreement commitments, the supporting transportation sector is related to energy conservation as outlined in the General National Energy Plan.

As mandated by Law Number 30 of 2007 concerning Energy, Article 17 paragraph 1, the Government prepares a General National Energy Plan or Rencana Umum Energi Nasional (RUEN) based on the national energy policy. National energy policy or Kebijakan Energi Nasional (KEN) is an energy management policy based on fair, sustainable, and environmentally sound principles to create energy independence and national energy security.

The Government has issued Presidential Regulation Number 22 of 2017 concerning the General National Energy Plan (RUEN). The General National Energy Plan (RUEN) is a policy of the Central Government regarding the national-level energy management plan, which is the elaboration and implementation plan of a cross-sectoral National Energy Policy to achieve the targets of the National Energy Policy.

In addition, RUEN is a guideline for national energy management to realize energy independence and national energy security in supporting sustainable development.

Transportation sector support in the RUEN program includes energy conservation activities and new and renewable energy in transportation infrastructure. These programs include the construction of a Solar Power Plant (PLTS) for transportation facilities such as bus terminals, stations, ports, airports, and loading and unloading facilities. The transportation sector also contributes to energy management programs to support energy conservation programs, including energy audits for energy users with energy consumption of 6,000 TOE per year.

Support from PT Angkasa Pura I

Based on the commitment of the Government of Indonesia after the Paris Agreement and other mandatory programs, PT Angkasa Pura I has attempted to take Mitigation Actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through the issuance of Instructions for the Directors of PT Angkasa Pura I (Persero) Number 4 of 2018 concerning Steps – Steps for Reducing GHG Emissions at PT Angkasa Pura I (Persero) Airport.

Through the instructions of the Board of Directors, PT Angkasa Pura I has carried out an inventory of GHG emissions at 15 airports through the ACERT (Airport Carbon Emission Reporting Tool) software. This GHG emission inventory is carried out at scope 1+2, which contains sources of impacts from activities using fuel oil (BBM) and electrical energy to support airport operations.

For information, in 2021, the GHG Emission Inventory at 15 airports of PT Angkasa Pura I is 89,993 TonCO2e.

In addition to the GHG emission inventory program, PT Angkasa Pura I have also carried out GHG mitigation actions that have been carried out including the following:

1) Reforestation

The reforestation program can absorb CO2 emissions by planting tamarind trees and other tree species such as mahogany, bungur, nyamplung, rosewood, tabebuia, etcetera. The reforestation program is a series of environmental calendar events such as Tree Planting Day, which falls every November 28 every year and has been carried out at 15 PT Angkasa Pura I airports.

Figure 1. Reforestation at Ambon Pattimura Airport (Source: Doc. AP1)

2) LED Light Usage

Mitigation action using LED lights is a mitigation action by replacing conventional lamps with energy-efficient LED lamps to reduce electrical energy consumption, which impacts reducing GHG emissions.

LED lights at airports are used for lighting airside facilities, landside, terminal buildings, and other supporting facilities. LED lights have been implemented at 15 airports of PT Angkasa Pura I.

Figure 2. Use of LED Lights at Zainudin Abdul Majid Airport Terminal – Lombok (Source: Doc. AP1)

3) Utilization of Solar Cell PJU Lights

Using solar cells to utilize public street lighting is a mitigation action to reduce GHG emissions. The use of solar cell PJU lamps by utilizing solar power produces clean energy to turn on lamps with efficient technology.

The use of solar cell PJU lights has been utilized in several airports of PT Angkasa Pura I such as Syamsudin Noor Airport, Jend. Ahmad Yani, Sultan Hasanudin Airport, El Tari Airport, SAMS Sepinggan Airport, Juanda Airport, I Gusti Ngurah Rai Airport, Adi Soemarmo Airport, Sentani Airport, Adi Sutjitpto Airport.

Figure 3. Use of Solar Cell PJU Lights at Syamsudin Noor Airport – Banjarmasin (Source: Doc. AP1)

4) Implementation of Green Building through Energy Efficiency

One of the criteria for implementing Green Building is through energy efficiency and energy conservation that has been designed from the planning stage to the building operation stage. Through energy efficiency and conservation programs, we can determine the level of efficiency in the use of energy consumption in each building to control energy consumption to support environmentally friendly building operations.

Green Building has been implemented at Yogyakarta International Airport (YIA), which has received certification from the Green Building Council Indonesia (GBCI). For information, the application of Green Building can provide energy savings of 15,817,592 kWh/year and a reduction in GHG emissions of 14,093 tons of CO2/year.

Figure 4. the Gold Rank Green Building Certificate of Yogyakarta International Airport (Source: Doc. AP1)

5) The Implementation of Energy Management System

Energy Management is an integrated activity to control energy consumption to achieve effective and efficient energy utilization to produce maximum output through structured and economical technical actions to minimize energy use, including energy for production processes, and minimize consumption of raw materials and supporting materials.

Energy Management is done by:

  1. Appoint the Energy Manager
  2. Formulate an Energy Conservation program;
  3. Carry out periodic Energy Audits;
  4. Carry out recommendations on energy audit results; and
  5. Report the implementation of Energy Management annually to the Minister, governor, or regent/mayor in accordance with their respective authorities.

The benefits of an energy management system, in addition to saving energy and costs, also contribute to reducing GHG emissions.

I Gusti Ngurah Rai Airport has implemented an Energy Management System and certified ISO 500001:2018 Energy Management System. The program for implementing this energy management system is the implementation of the MoU between the Directorate General of EBTKE, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, and PT Angkasa Pura I regarding the Application of Energy Conservation and Utilization of New and Renewable Energy at the Airport. In addition, this energy management system program is also supported by UNDP Indonesia and the ENercoss Team to assist with the program.

For information, until December 2021, the energy savings that have been made are 13,985,348 Kwh/year, and the contribution to GHG emission reduction is 11,048 Tons CO2e/year.

Figure 5. ISO 50001 : 2018 Certification regarding the Implementation of Energy Management Systems at I Gusti Ngurah Rai Airport – Bali (Source: Doc. AP1)

Based on reports on the achievement of GHG emission reductions submitted to the Ministry of Transportation every year, PT Angkasa Pura I has contributed to reducing GHG emissions 2021 by 377,167 tons of CO2. The achievement of reducing GHG emissions comes from reforestation mitigation actions, the use of LED lights, the use of solar cell PJU lights, the application of green buildings, and the application of energy management systems.

Based on the mitigation actions carried out above, it is in line with improving transportation sector services more efficiently. Quoting from Wendy Aritenang through the 2019 Transportation Sector Environmental Issues and Climate Change Book, efforts to reduce air pollution's causes (mitigation) and GHG originating from transportation are largely the same. They are in line with making transportation services better and more efficient. Efforts to improve the transportation system are very important always beneficial for reducing air pollution and GHGs.

GHG emission mitigation carried out on airport equipment and facilities can improve services in the airport sector so that the age of equipment and facilities can be more efficient and impact improving services in the airport sector.

GHG inventory and mitigation efforts that have been carried out at the airport are the implementations of the implementation of environmentally friendly airports (Eco Airport), which have been mandated in the company's mission, namely Giving Positive Contributions to environmental sustainability. With the increasing age of PT Angkasa Pura I, environmental management and monitoring programs have become the main capital in the development of airport services to become a world link that is more than just an airport operator with service excellence that displays typical Indonesian hospitality.

Sumber :  This article written by Abdullah Faqih, Airport Environment Officer PT. Angkasa Pura I

Airportman Indonesia

Airportman Indonesia

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